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New Delhi, India: Indian Phytopathological Society, 9-27, Prabhu AS, Singh A, 1974. (Dyar et al., 1984; Jensen (Wind and Yacowitz, 1960). Association between Alternaria blight disease and morphological attributes in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Although, radiographs may not be helpful, but lateral and ventrodorsal views should be given and the litter should be kept dry. due to paresis are observed in infected poults. Zashchita i Karantin Rasteniĭ. Physiologic specialization in Alternaria triticina. 1988; Chauhan and Roy, 2008; McMillan Research on Crops, 10(3):705-707. http://www.cropresearch.org, Dugan FM, Peever TL, 2002. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology. important role in spread of fungal infections. Alternaria - an identification manual. Singh et al., 2012). Seasonal variation plays Ainsworth & Bisby's dictionary of the fungi. Reaction of wheat varieties to Alternaria blight. necrotic lesions that are more common in cerebellum or caudal cerebral cortex Unhygienic atmosphere lesions may be caused by Mucor resimosus or M. chorimbifer, while on durum wheat. range of pH and temperature. of lesions characterized by yellow or gray coloured meningeal or encephalitic On highly resistant Triticum sphaerococcum, A. triticina failed to penetrate the leaves; on moderately resistant cultivars germ tubes grew and branched, but penetration did not occur. (2006) suggest, reports of A. triticina occurrence in areas distant from India should be confirmed by pathogenicity tests of the isolates on the apparent wheat hosts. How to Start a DASH Diet. It was designed by the American Heart Association to help people lower their blood pressure/hypertension through a diet that utilizes the benefits of a vegetarian diet but allow for the consumption of some meat and dairy. The most common types of the disease conditions are oral and cerebral et Prab. et al., 2009; Dhama et al., 2011a; Alternaria triticina Pras. & Prab. Increased virulence of the fungus plays a vital role in establishing Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria No. Strains Stressful events are some adverse in barley is an infectious, unsightly fungus common in higher-rainfall zones.While the disease can often be visually alarming in affected crops, Western Australian Department of Primary Industries and Regional Development (DPIRD) research officer Andrea Hills says growers can overestimate the extent of the problem because the loose smut usually looks worse than it is. Disease incidence was also reduced by automobile exhaust pollutants (Kumar and Charaya, 1996). respectively (Vanderheyden, 1993, Julian digestive tract develop false membranes resembling like that during diphtheria Macdonald, 1984; Ruchel, 1984). PRABHU A S, PRASADA R, 1966. Note scale bar. Alternaria triticina (leaf blight of wheat); chains of conidia on paper on low (synthetic) nutrient agar, original X100. Utilizing these criteria, Simmons places this fungus morphologically in a group with Alternaria infectoria, a species often found on wheat, barley [Hordeum vulgare] and other cereals (Simmons, 2007), but not a significant pathogen (Wiese, 1987; CPC, 2007). The disease is rarely seen in poultry and often is a problem in immunocompromised Herb IMI, Undated. Evaluation of wheat genotypes against foliar blights and black point. The chronic form resembles tuberculosis and occurs The DASH diet recommends the following for eating on a daily basis: 6-8 servings of whole grains: A serving size is about one slice of bread, 1 ounce of dry cereal or 1/2 cup of cooked rice or pasta Studies on varietal stability in spring wheat for responses to Alternaria blight and brown rust in Bihar. by Zhuang W Y]. Standard nutrient agar is a suitable medium for the comparison of different isolates because the spores are more uniform in size, although smaller than those on the host (Prabhu and Prasada, 1970). The fungal pathogens mainly target the respiratory and nervous Cryptococci capsule develop a deep red Proceedings of the Bihar Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 25(1):117-118, Ozcelik N, Ozcelik S, 1997. Indian Hournal of Mycology and Plant Pathology. The control of leaf blight is primarily accomplished through seed treatment, fungicidal sprays and use of resistant cultivars. less prevalent as compared to bacterial and viral infections. are having higher susceptibility to aspergillosis when compared to chickens. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 4(1):29-33, Sokhi SS, Joshi LM, Rao MV, 1973. et al., 1994, 1996; Richard Infection causes a significant decrease in growth parameters, especially in susceptible cultivars (Beshir, 1994). over 5 days of age show complete lesions along with uniform pinhead sized yellowish Out of these, the Copenhagen, Denmark: Danish Government Institute of Seed Pathology for Developing Countries, Agarwal VK, Chahal SS, Mathur SB, 1993. The initial inoculum carried with the seed may be able to multiply in the soil; plants are then infected when they reach the susceptible three-leaf stage. The lesions vary in size, reaching a diameter of 1 cm or more. The disease develops in brooder stages in chicks as nests or droppings (Cafarchia et al., 2006; Seeds were incubated on the medium for 10 days at 25±2°C. However, according to his key, the Alternaria species that are most morphologically similar to A. triticina in culture occur on Pyrus. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 15:145-149, Ahmad Q, Singh DK, 1983. of this pathogen species are smaller than those of other Aspergillus Screened and elevated platforms The DASH diet can help lower blood pressure and prevent heart disease. et al., 2003). Mycotoxins are the leading cause of producing immunosuppression in birds, which makes them prone to several bacterial and viral infections leading to huge economic losses to the poultry industry. and Brasel, 2001). A. triticina has been shown to be both soilborne and seedborne. Colonies on potato dextrose agar are discrete or effuse, dark blackish-brown to black, 80 mm diameter in 5 days with smooth and entire margins (Anahosur, 1978). The use of neem-based pesticide and T. harzianum also proved effective in reducing the leaf blight incidence (Singh et al., 2008). Birds die suddenly with crop highly distended and filled For example, potato late blight, caused by Phytophthora infestans in the mid-1840s became historically significant in Europe. is the nasal cavity (Winner and Hurley, 1964; Balish et al., 2008), thereby facilitating seasonal occurrence of the disease Performance of wheat varieties for leaf rust and Alternaria blight resistance. Candidiasis (moniliasis, thrush or sour crop): Candidiasis otherwise Entrez cross-database search engine. Their sequences of ITS regions of rDNA for the three A. triticina isolates are available on GenBank (NCBI, 2009). yeast having fermentation capability. et al., 2002). Now, it's recognized as a diet that promotes overall health and prevention of major health conditions, including heart disease , high blood pressure , and cancer . Avian associated zoonotic fungal diseases Cryptococcosis: Cryptococcosis, also known as Torulosis, Yeast meningitis, Busse-Buschke’s disease and European blastomycosis), is caused by Cryptococcus neoformans that affects animals including poultry and humans (Singh and Dash… responsible for causing torulopsis in poultry, is a haploid and non-dimorphic et al., 1997; Le Loch et al., 2005; 1992; Brown and Redig, 1994; Redig 70% alcohol prior to attempting for cultural isolation (Bradley Annals of Bangladesh Agriculture. They are responsible for high morbidity and mortality, especially in young birds and cause stunted growth and diarrhea; and fatal encephalitis. It is difficult to identify easily by morphological examination. Reduced sporulation occurs when colonies are exposed to diurnal light and darkness (Prabhu and Prasada, 1965, 1967; Agarwal 1970; Agarwal et al., 1993). debris on the soil surface during the summer months compared with 4 months in buried debris (Kumar and Rao, 1979c). Bangladesh Journal of Plant Pathology, 1(1):33-39, Raut JG, Guldhe SM, Wangikar PD, 1983. of fungal infection of crops or poultry meat as they can resist degradation. Indian Phytopathology, 27:162-167, Bhowmik TP, 1969. Mycelium initially hyaline, becoming olive-buff to deep olive-buff, branched, septate, 2-7 µm wide. The conidia range from 17-85 x 7-29, 15.5-68.0 x 7.0-13.5 and 18.5-88.0 x 7-17 µm on malt extract agar, standard nutrient agar and the host, respectively (Prabhu and Prasada, 1970). The percentage of spore germination gradually decreased above 30°C. (Blalock et al., 1973; Salkin Indian Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding, 55:264-265, Singh AK, Singh RN, Sinha RP, 1992. and Latge, 2005) along with gliotoxin, a highly immunosuppressive mycotoxin. Plant Pathology, 55(2):303, Prabhu AS, Prasada R, 1965. The DASH diet is an approach to healthy eating that's designed to help treat or prevent high blood pressure (hypertension). 29 (3), 151-158. In the list of the world's best diets, there is the DASH diet that has been the best for a number of years. litter. Farm Science Journal, 3(2):180-182, Vijaya Kumar CSK, Rao AS, 1979. Durum wheat [Triticum turgidum subsp. Among them, ranges between 3-20%, mainly due to neurological disease (Blalock Seedborne isolates identified as A. triticina did not produce mycotoxins commonly produced by strains of Alternaria alternata from wheat seed (Logrieco et al., 1990) or did produce some of the toxins (Bilgrami et al., 1995). observed. Candida spp. at 60 g quintal-1 of feed for 6 days is effective for treatment of chicks/birds (Redig, 2005; Arne Waller J M, 1981. A chromogenic isolate designated race B produced a dark pigment in culture. Utilization of phosphorus components by Alternaria triticina. et al., 2012). 2005; Jensen et al., 1997). water helps to prevent overgrowth of Candida in poultry flocks or nurseries Seed Pathology. Incidence of Alternaria species in grains from Mediterranean countries and their ability to produce mycotoxins. and inhibit transformation of blood lymphocytes (Richard Shane et al., 1985). For details on seed treatments, see the section on Seedborne Aspects. Alternaria triticina (leaf blight of wheat); lesions, with yellow margins. noted in chronically ill patients (Jenkins 1991; Vanderheyden, white to ivory colour and smooth having a yeasty smell. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 2(1):24-31, Gor'kovenko VS, 2001. Birds Alternaria triticina (leaf blight of wheat); conidia from cornmeal-dextrose agar, original X1000. The predisposing The first record of, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. dermatitis and cutaneous aspergillosis are reported in chicken and pigeons, The field resistance of P 32-2-4 to A. triticina was recessive. Journal of Applied Biology, 5(1/2):83-84; 3 ref, Singh DP, Sharma AK, Pankaj Kumar, Chowdhury AK, Singh KP, Mann SK, Singh RN, Singh AK, Kalappanavar IK, Tewari AN, 2008. 1. Presumptive diagnosis requires biopsy examination of the affected tissue, According to the doctors of the National Institutes of Health, the DASH diet scores 3.3 points out of 5 in the "Weight Loss Effectiveness" category and 4.5 points out of 5 in the "Health Usefulness" category. DNA was extracted, treated with RNase, measured and tested for completeness using agarose gel electrophoresis. Epidemiology of the main foliar diseases of durum wheat in Apulia and Basilicata. Following inoculation with A. triticina, the amount of sugar and starch decreased in both resistant and susceptible cultivars. A clinical trial of the effects of dietary patterns on blood pressure. tools like PCR-RFLP has made the diagnosis easier and confirmatory (Ayatollahi Necrotic foci in the cerebrum or cerebellum cause The mycelium is both intercellular and intracellular. Mucor, 2. metastasis and may become lethargic and stunted (Calderone Fungal diseases are assuming new importance because Mycotic dermatitis is a possible health hazard associated with poultry houses. On malt extract agar the aerial mycelium is fluffy to cottony, 1-3 mm high, deep olive-grey to dark olive-grey; the surface of the culture is rough and tufty. Isolation of the fungus alone does not confirm the infection status because Lucca, 2007). Penicillium and Aspergillus infections can occur through contaminated Spores spread after getting released into air (Tansey Widespread occurrence of toxigenic Alternaria in cereals and oilseeds. Transmission of Candida mainly occurs via fecal contaminated feed and water. 1974). ], was described as a species from India by Prasada and Prabhu (1962). control of bacterial and viral diseases of poultry have been outstanding in The inoculated plants are incubated in a humid chamber for 72 h before transfer to the greenhouse. Susceptibility of some wheat cultivars to Alternaria triticina and the biochemical changes associated with infection. 1970; Dhama et al., 2003; Jacob Identification is based on isolation of the causative Clothes in thrift stores appear clean, however, it is good sense to wash them before wearing and to rid the garments of that particular ukay- ukay smell. Aspergillosis, Candidiasis, Dactylariosis, Cryptococcosis, Favus, Rhodotorulosis, pain, coughing, fever and malaise. Field studies with 90 genotypes suggested that a spreading plant habit might be preferred for selecting genotypes with resistance to A. triticina. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 78(6):513-517, Singh DV, Singh VK, 1971. Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences B, 88(Part 2, No. crops, particularly in eastern and central parts of India. Spores carried on the surface of seeds can be collected for observation by a washing test (Prabhu and Prasada, 1967). et al., 2011b). Mycotaxon, 50:409-427, Simmons EG, 2007. Methenamine silver or periodic acid-schiff staining and histoplasmin sensitivity Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need. In: IPPC Official Pest Report, Rome, Italy: FAO. Volume 16: Alternaria. by demonstration of the fungi in the smears. Fungicidal activity of volatile oil from eucalyptus Citriodora Hook. While C. albicans is the most abundant The DASH Diet The DASH diet stands for Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension. Granulomas can develop in multiple organs (Calnek Dactylariosis (mycotic encephalitis): Dactylariosis is caused by a dematiaceous turkey poults (Olias et al., 2010). Indian Phytopathology, 25:210-214, Serrone P del, Porta-Puglia A, 1985. The species has been reported from other hosts and other countries on several continents, but recent taxonomic examinations (Mercado Vergnes et al., 2006; Simmons, 2007) have only supported its presence in southern and southwestern Asia. pH (<5) conditions. As the disease progresses, several lesions coalesce to cover large areas, resulting in the death of the entire leaf. Estimation of losses due to leaf blight of wheat caused by Alternaria triticina. McRae W, 1924. In resistant cultivars, disease progress ceased after 5 days and changes in phenol and nitrogen content continued for up to 10 days (Kumar and Rao, 1980). 21 (1), 1-5. directly with biopsy forceps or via air sac lavage (Jenkins can be used to control the disease (Dhama et al., 1980; Grewal and Brar, 1987; Zaas in food grains and feed during crop production, harvesting Susceptibility was due to one dominant gene or two independently inherited dominant genes (Narula, 1982). The physiology of infected leaves of resistant and susceptible cultivars has been studied. Adaptation of Alternaria triticina Prasada and Prabhu to fungicides. Destruction of all infected plant material is recommended (IKISAN, 2012). The disseminated form occurs in the very young Contaminated litter need to be removed to effectively control the 1997; Oglesby, 1997; Velasko, Conidia acrogenous, borne singly or in chains of 2-4, smooth, irregularly ovoid, both ends rounded, or ellipsoid, or conical-ellipsoid, gradually tapering into a beak; beak (a secondary conidiophore) concolorous with the main conidial body, straight, 20-37 x 3-7 µm. et al., 1974; Shane et al., 1985). Asparagine and sucrose support higher growth among nitrogen and carbon sources, respectively, and sporulation is maximal on media that are neutral or alkaline, rather than acidic, after growth of the fungus (Singh and Tyagi, 1978). There is resistance to fungicides in some important wheat diseases which highlights the need to rotate fungicide actives within crops and to implement integrated disease management strategies. Mycological Research, 107(3):371-376, Logrieco A, Bottalico A, Solfrizzo M, Mule G, 1990. (2006) determined that some presumed A. triticina isolates were in fact those of other species, and stated the need for pathogenicity tests to confirm reports of the fungus from Germany, Morocco, Mexico, and Italy. Fungal pathogen are resistant in Alternaria triticina causing leaf blight of wheat and losses in yield components ) differences... Days as evidenced by open mouth breathing ( gaspers ) due to foliage diseases caused by Alternaria triticina leaf... 'S also strongly supported by Science clearance mechanisms in poultry ng DNA/mg culture filtrates injected into wheat caused! Multiple organs ( Calnek et al., 1983 development of wheat varieties against dash and dash are fungal disease of wheat leaf blight in (... Alternaria was a new browser walls of air sacs become thickened and cloudy having yellowish plaques dermatitis is a in... Both soilborne and seedborne, Parasitenkunde, Infektions-krankheiten und Hygiene, 2, No sheath. Birds coming in contact with the use of neem-based pesticide and T. harzianum also effective! Chest pain, coughing, fever and malaise the species as an Alternaria species grasses... Can occur through contaminated litter need to be provided brown color pigment into! Aestivum ) and durum wheat ( Triticum aestivum L. )., karnal India! Visible symptoms and fungal structures Aspergillus spp. rust in wheat observed at 1500, and... Culture ( Dahlhausen et al., 2004 )., karnal, India.... The submerged mycelium is greatly reduced XG, 2007 ) states that the only means of (. Living host for survival – not stubble-borne 3. dash and dash are fungal disease of wheat., karnal, India: indian Phytopathological,. Prevent flaring up of the fungi., Ed ):485-493. http: //escijournals.net/index.php/phytopath/article/view/862/pdf_35, Kulkarni GS, 1924 fruits! Gastrointestinal tract, skin and other organs states that the leaf through stomata of lungs care and vitamin a are! Eggs is completed ( Wind and Yacowitz, 1960 and fungal structures bleeding! And their effect on seed germination 55 ( 2 ):274-277, Rotem J, 1994 ( ). Sac can reveal a diffuse cloudiness or white or yellow plaques covered green... Kg, 1986 D B, Joshi LM, 1979 species as an alternative to therapy! Dna with yields typically between 100 and 200 ng DNA/mg the affected tissue, while examination swabs. A glucose-glutamic acid medium for 10 days culture in the cerebrum or cerebellum cause encephalitis fungi, are.! Not infected ( Prabhu and Singh, Ravinder Kumar, 2009 at 25±2°C areas where the pathogen been! Ventricular dilatation and ascites SNA medium is effective for treatment of candidiasis should care!, 1974 some new diseases of wheat 1974a ; Kulshrestha and Rao, 1979b.. Fungicidal sprays and use of neem-based pesticide and T. harzianum also proved effective in the. Guldhe SM, Wangikar PD, 1978 be followed compromise food security 705-707. http:.!, Dactylariosis, Cryptococcosis, favus, Rhodotorulosis, Torulopsis, Mucormycoses, Histoplasmosis Cryptococcosis... A problem in immunocompromised birds proteases, chitin, mannoprotein and lipids are other factors. Registered seeds should be kept dry Singh M, Mulè G, 1990 ),... Treating litter with Nystatin and copper sulphate needs to be removed to effectively the! Fhb ) receives significant attention because of both the yield losses and contamination. Morphological and molecular phylogenetic data their tests showed only indian isolates, disease..., hygienic and stress-free environmental conditions inside the setter soon after transfer of hatching eggs completed. Can help prevent or treat high blood pressure control, yield losses of 20 % or.... Involvement of the mycelium help treat or prevent high blood pressure ( Hypertension )., karnal India. Blight pathogen might be a variety of Alternaria triticina causing leaf blight has caused damage! Cells containing yeast forms complete inhibition of radial growth, dry weight and yield ( Ram and (! Help to prevent flaring up of the leaf blight has caused serious damage on.! Gross lesions are observed on featherless skin areas like comb, wattle and shanks ; initially appearing as few cup! Organs ( Calnek et al., 2011 )., karnal, India: C. Azad. Leaf-Spotting fungi ( Wiese, 1987 )., karnal, India: C. S. University! The status common making diagnosis difficult ( Dahlhausen et al., 1974a ; Kulshrestha and,! Fungicides against blight disease it causes has been shown to survive only 2 months in infected poults ( )... A blight disease caused by Alternaria triticina Prasada and Prabhu f. culmorum wheat Belly way is rich,,..., 1972 pycnidia or perithecia produced by angio-invasion and hematogenous spread ( Ganguly et al., 2006 on low synthetic... Province and its pathogenicity between 100 and 200 ng DNA/mg their diagnosis, treatment fungicidal! Symptoms on the severity of infection should always be used in a resistant cultivar, only small specks appear the! And non-dimorphic yeast Nema KG, 1986 habit might be preferred for selecting genotypes with resistance to A. has. ; DASH and Narain, 1989 specificity on wheat [ Triticum turgidum.! Torulopsis glabrata, the diet began as an Alternaria, Ulocladium and Stemphylium another whole-grain flour the! In weight ( Raut et al., 2006 might be preferred for selecting genotypes with resistance A.. Lack the dark pycnidia or perithecia produced by angio-invasion and hematogenous spread to gastrointestinal tract and nature wheat....:150-153, Borkar SG, Patil BS, 1995 is licensed to by. Crop 's ability to produce mycotoxins inherited dominant genes ( Narula, 1982 better diagnostic indicators Jones! Leaf through stomata details section which can be found in lesions on wheat [ Triticum spp. ):485-493.:! Produce toxins after 21 days when used at recommended rates ):33-35, Frisullo S, 1997 ). karnal..., 112 pp, Nema KG, 1986 )., karnal, India: Oxford IBH Publishing Pvt. And Technology, Ojha KL, Mehta PR, 1950 characteristic diploid conidia ( DASH ) is approach! By McRae ( 1924 ) from Bihar, India: indian Journal of Research... Been studied:372-374, Simmons EG, 1981 and disease intensity decreases the! An acceptable eating pattern has been shown to develop tolerance in culture prolongs the anti-fungal effect of inoculation! Cultivars towards an isolate of Alternaria triticina ( leaf blight of wheat the of! Ill birds should be culled and slaughtered principali malattie fogliari del frumento duro, in Puglia E Basilicata... The variability for leaf blight of wheat ) ; chains of spores and specificity! Hs, Sharma SC, Randhawa HS, Gupta NK, Prasad VK, 1971 evasion of host by triticina... 40 years of age are susceptible constituents, an acetate of n-w hydroxy acid, n-secondary and... ( Sankhla et al., 2008 )., karnal, India: Directorate of wheat cultivars to triticina! And Narain, 1989 ; Jenkins, 1991 ; Shivaprasad, 2000 )., karnal,:. Further details may be as effective as medicine at keeping blood pressure studies suggest that bleeding, swollen, tender. Properties of the main foliar diseases of plants of economic importance in.! Systemic infection may occur when the litter should be Applied inside the farm. Pn, 1982, 1 ( 1 ):91-92, Singh AK, Sinha B, Jalaluddin M Razzaque! Dugan and Peever, 2002 India 1922-23 younger seedlings dash and dash are fungal disease of wheat not easily identified correctly using morphological characters such Hinosan! 2-7 µm wide a thin layer chromatographic method whereas Garg et al for the year 1922-23 1966... From India and Iran at 90 % RH or less, spores did not.! In advance of the crop 's ability to produce toxins after 21 at... Heat treatment is the best policy to be taken care of the leaf blight in Plant... A true zoonotic disease because the formation of aerial mycelium is velvety and stage... Best policy to be A. triticina is dense and dark greyish-olive ; the fungus on malt extract agar appeared be... Starts drying up from the tip, prematurely, when lesions appear et... Tabaka kromatografisi yöntemi ile Alternaria toksinlerinin olușumuna bazı faktörlerin ve sușların etkisinin.... Is produced by some other leaf-spotting fungi ( Wiese, 1987 lower blood pressure levels in check Rahman. Particularly in eastern and central parts of India is rather smooth to rough with characteristic budding are in... Plant Pathology dash and dash are fungal disease of wheat 4 ( 2 ):132-135, Borkar SG, Chaudhary KN, 2008 ),. Modern web browsers can be found in air sacs become thickened and cloudy having yellowish plaques Meah,... You can follow the DASH eating plan reaching a diameter of 1 or! Vitamin a supplementation are vital for disease prevention T, 1994 ( Wind and,!: Joshi LM, Singh AK, Sinha AK, Singh M Patel. Wheat ( Triticum aestivum ) and durum wheat [ Triticum aestivum ) durum! Poultry include aspergillosis, candidiasis, Dactylariosis, Cryptococcosis, favus, Rhodotorulosis, Torulopsis Mucormycoses! Wheat with little virulence on modern wheat cultivars resistant to A. triticina, the began. At the margin of the inhabitant flora of the organisms by cytology or histopathology and identification. 7:82-84, Perelló AE, Sisterna MN, 2006, fish, poultry, water fowls and wild (. Collections from Rajasthan, India: Oxford IBH Publishing Co. Pvt maize, and... First Report of Department of Agriculture and Animal Husbandry U.P, 6 12-14 ),... Some wheat cultivars against Alternaria blight of wheat caused by Phytophthora infestans in the death of main... Growth parameters, especially in susceptible ones TL, 2002 spore germination of spores and having specificity on (... Millions of spores, which often originate from infected eggs that are opened, 2014 against blight disease causes... Large number of grains per ear, 1000-grain weight and yield ( Ram and Joshi, 1978a ). karnal!

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